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99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug

99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug

  • 99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug
  • 99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug
  • 99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug
99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug
Product Details:
Place of Origin: China
Brand Name: Top Pharm
Certification: IOS 901
Model Number: 96-48-0
Payment & Shipping Terms:
Minimum Order Quantity: 10g
Price: Negotiable
Packaging Details: As your requirments
Delivery Time: 3-6 working days
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Supply Ability: bulk stock
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Detailed Product Description
Purity: 99% Appearance: White Loose Lyophilized Powder.
Spec: 10G CAS: 96-48-0
MF: C4H6O2 MW: 86.09
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Recreational Drug GBL Oil

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GBL Oil Liquid Nutritional Supplement

GBL(γ-Butyrolactone)


Product name: γ-Butyrolactone ,GBL
Chemical formula: C4H6O2
Molar mass: 86.09 g·mol?1
Appearance: colorless liquid
CAS: 96-48-0

 

gamma-Butyrolactone

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γ-Butyrolactone[1][2]
Gamma-Butyrolactone.svg
 
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Oxolan-2-one
Other names
Dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one
GBL
Butyrolactone
1,4-Lactone
4-Butyrolactone
4-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid lactone
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.002.282 Edit this at Wikidata
KEGG
RTECS number
  • LU3500000
UNII
Properties
C4H6O2
Molar mass 86.090 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 1.1286 g/mL (15 °C), 1.1296 g/mL (20 °C)
Melting point −43.53 °C (−46.35 °F; 229.62 K)
Boiling point 204 °C (399 °F; 477 K)
Miscible
Solubility Soluble in CCl4, methanol, ethanol, acetone, benzene, ethyl ether
log P −0.76[3]
Acidity (pKa) 4.5
1.435, 1.4341 (20 °C)
Viscosity 1.7 cP (25 °C)
Hazards
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
Toxic and flammable
GHS labelling:
H302, H318, H336
P264, P270, P280, P301+P312, P305+P351+P338, P403+P233, P501
Flash point 98 °C (208 °F; 371 K) (closed cup)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
17.2 mL/kg (orally, rat)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

gamma-Butyrolactone, γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor. It is the simplest 4-carbon lactone. It is mainly used as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, e.g. methyl-2-pyrrolidone.[4] In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational CNS depressant with effects similar to those of barbiturates.

Occurrence[edit]

GBL has been found in extracts from samples of unadulterated wines.[5][6] This finding indicates that GBL is a naturally occurring component in some wines and may be present in similar products. The concentration detected was approximately 5 μg/mL and was easily observed using a simple extraction technique followed by GC/MS analysis. GBL can be found in cheese flavorings but typically results in a content of 0.0002% GBL in the final foodstuff.[7]

Production and synthesis[edit]

γ-Butyrolactone is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol at a temperature of 180–300 °C and atmospheric pressure in the presence of a copper catalyst.[4]

Dehydrocyclization of 1,4-butanediol to form γ-butyrolactone in the presence of a copper catalyst

The yield of this process is approximately 95%. The purification takes place with a liquid-gas-phase extraction.[4]

In the laboratory, it may also be obtained via the oxidation of tetrahydrofuran (THF), for example with aqueous sodium bromate.[8] An alternative route proceeds from GABA via a diazonium intermediate.[9]

Reactions[edit]

As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. In acidic water, a mixture of the lactone and acid forms exists in an equilibrium. These compounds then may go on to form the polymer poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) as well as the dimer 1,6-Dioxecane-2,7-dione. When treated with a non-nucleophilic base, such as lithium diisopropylamide, GBL undergoes deprotonation alpha to the carbonyl. The related compound caprolactone can be used to make a polyester in this manner.

Polymerization[edit]

The ring-opening polymerization of butyrolactone gives polybutyrolactone. The resulting reverts to the monomer by thermal cracking.[10][11] It is claimed that poly(GBL) is competitive with commercial biomaterial poly(4-hydroxybutyrate), or P4HB. It is further claimed that poly(GBL) is cheaper to make than P4HB, although both are bio-derived.[10][12]

Uses[edit]

Butyrolactone is principally a precursor to other chemicals. Reaction with methylamine gives NMP, and with ammonia gives pyrrolidone. It is also used as a solvent in lotions and some polymers.[4]

99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug 14
 
2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxybutyric acid is an herbicide produced from butyrolactone.

Butyrolactone, with its wide liquid range, chemical stability, and high dielectric constant, is used in electrolytic capacitors as the organic solvent. It is frequently mixed with a small ratio of ethylene glycol, "9:1" being common, to vary internal resistivity.[13]

It has been used as a solvent in various laboratory experiments, e.g., the preparation of Methylammonium lead halide.[14]

Pharmacology[edit]

GBL is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB.

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

GBL is rapidly converted into GHB by paraoxonase (lactonase) enzymes, found in the blood.[15][16] Animals which lack these enzymes exhibit no effect from GBL.[15] GBL is more lipophilic (fat soluble) than GHB, and so is absorbed faster and has higher bioavailability. Because of these pharmacokinetic differences, GBL tends to be more potent and faster-acting than GHB, but has a shorter duration; whereas the related compound 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B) tends to be slightly less potent and slower to take effect but longer-acting than GHB.[17]

99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug 15
 
Metabolic pathway of 1,4-butanediol, GBL and GHB

Nutritional supplement[edit]

Due to its property of being a prodrug of GHB which increases sleep related growth hormone (GH) secretion,[18] GBL was sold as a nutritional supplement after the scheduling of GHB, under the names Revivarant and Renewtrient,[19] until they were banned by the FDA.

Recreational drug[edit]

GBL is a prodrug of GHB and its recreational use comes entirely as a result of this.[20] GBL overdose can cause irrational behaviour, severe sickness, coma and death.[21]

To bypass GHB restriction laws, home synthesis kits were introduced to transform GBL and/or 1,4-B into GHB.

99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug 16
 
Jugs of seized GBL
99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug 17
 
FDA warning against products containing GHB and its prodrugs, such as GBL

GBL has a distinctive taste and odour, described as being comparable to stale water, synthetic melon aroma or burnt plastic. This differs significantly from GHB, which is described as having a decidedly "salty" taste.[22]

Due to the fact that those with limited chemistry knowledge can make GBL with easy-to-get precursors, it has become quite popular among young people in French nightclubs.[23][24]

Dangers[edit]

If taken undiluted by mouth, GBL can cause esophageal and gastro-intestinal irritation. It is possible for oral ingestion of GBL to cause nausea and other similar problems, possibly more so than with GHB.

GHB has biphasic effects, an euphoric effect at low doses (the reason for the term liquid ecstasy), and a sedative effect[25] at higher doses. As a result of this sedation it can cause unconsciousness.[26] When combined with alcohol the increased sedation and risk of vomiting results in a high risk of fatality. Many harm reduction organisations suggest never mixing the two drugs as a result.[27][28]

There have been news reports of several deaths associated with GBL, usually in combination with alcohol or other depressants.[29]

Gamma-Butyrolactone is often referred to be used as a date rape drug.[30]

Addictiveness and dependence[edit]

Frequent use of GHB or GBL, even when taken long-term and in moderate doses, does not appear to cause significant physical dependency in the majority of its users. In many people, quitting or temporarily abstaining from use of the drugs is achieved with minimal or no difficulty. However, when consumed in excessive amounts with a high frequency of dosing, physical and psychological dependence can develop.[31] Management of GBL dependence involves considering the person's age, comorbidity and the pharmacological pathways of GBL.[32]

GHB and GBL users can adopt a '24/7' dosing regime.[33] This is where the user has become tolerant to the effects of the drug, increasing the dosage and frequency of dosage simply to avoid withdrawal symptoms.

For those users who do report withdrawal symptoms upon quitting the use of GHB or GBL, symptoms seem to depend on the dosage and the length of time the drug was used. Light to moderate users often experience insomnia and sleep-related problems, whereas heavy, prolonged use can cause severe withdrawal symptoms similar to Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome (BWS).

 

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99% Purity GBL(γ-Butyrolactone) CAS 96-48-0 Liquid Nutritional Supplement Recreational Drug 18

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