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99% Purity Procaine CAS 59-46-1 White Powder Local Anesthesia And Anti Inflammation

99% Purity Procaine CAS 59-46-1 White Powder Local Anesthesia And Anti Inflammation

  • 99% Purity Procaine CAS 59-46-1 White Powder  Local Anesthesia And Anti Inflammation
  • 99% Purity Procaine CAS 59-46-1 White Powder  Local Anesthesia And Anti Inflammation
  • 99% Purity Procaine CAS 59-46-1 White Powder  Local Anesthesia And Anti Inflammation
  • 99% Purity Procaine CAS 59-46-1 White Powder  Local Anesthesia And Anti Inflammation
99% Purity Procaine CAS 59-46-1 White Powder  Local Anesthesia And Anti Inflammation
Product Details:
Place of Origin: China
Brand Name: Top Pharm
Certification: IOS 901
Model Number: 59-46-1
Payment & Shipping Terms:
Minimum Order Quantity: 10g
Price: Negotiable
Packaging Details: As your requirments
Delivery Time: 3-6 working days
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Supply Ability: bulk stock
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Detailed Product Description
Purity: 99% Appearance: White Loose Lyophilized Powder.
Spec: 10G CAS: 59-46-1
MF: C13H20N2O2 MW: 236.152481
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Anti Inflammation Procaine Powder

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Steroids Procaine Powder

Procaine
 
 
Molecular Formula: C13H20N2O2
CAS number 59-46-1
Monoisotopic mass:236.152481 Da


 

 

Procaine

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
 
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Procaine
 
 
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
Pregnancy
category
Routes of
administration
Parenteral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability N/A
Metabolism Hydrolysis by plasma esterases
Elimination half-life 40–84 seconds
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
NIAID ChemDB
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.388 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C13H20N2O2
Molar mass 236.315 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
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Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is most commonly used in dental procedures to numb the area around a tooth and is also used to reduce the pain of intramuscular injection of penicillin. Owing to the ubiquity of the trade name Novocain or Novocaine, in some regions, procaine is referred to generically as novocaine. It acts mainly as a sodium channel blocker. Today it is used therapeutically in some countries due to its sympatholytic, anti-inflammatory, perfusion-enhancing, and mood-enhancing effects.

Procaine was first synthesized in 1905, shortly after amylocaine. It was created by the chemist Alfred Einhorn who gave the chemical the trade name Novocaine, from the Latin nov- (meaning "new") and -caine, a common ending for alkaloids used as anesthetics. It was introduced into medical use by surgeon Heinrich Braun.

Prior to the discovery of amylocaine and procaine, cocaine was a commonly used local anesthetic. Einhorn wished his new discovery to be used for amputations, but for this surgeons preferred general anesthesia. Dentists, however, found it very useful.

Pharmacology

 
Procaine application before removal of a decayed tooth

The primary use for procaine is as an anaesthetic.

Aside from its use as a dental anesthetic, procaine is used less frequently today, since more effective (and hypoallergenic) alternatives such as lidocaine (Xylocaine) exist. Like other local anesthetics (such as mepivacaine, and prilocaine), procaine is a vasodilator, thus is often coadministered with epinephrine for the purpose of vasoconstriction. Vasoconstriction helps to reduce bleeding, increases the duration and quality of anesthesia, prevents the drug from reaching systemic circulation in large amounts, and overall reduces the amount of anesthetic required.As a dental anesthesic, for example, more novocaine is needed for root canal treatment than for a simple filling. Unlike cocaine, a vasoconstrictor, procaine does not have the euphoric and addictive qualities that put it at risk for abuse.

Procaine, an ester anesthetic, is metabolized in the plasma by the enzyme pseudocholinesterase through hydrolysis into para-amino benzoic acid (PABA), which is then excreted by the kidneys into the urine.

A 1% procaine injection has been recommended for the treatment of extravasation complications associated with venipuncture, steroids, and antibiotics. It has likewise been recommended for treatment of inadvertent intra-arterial injections (10 ml of 1% procaine), as it helps relieve pain and vascular spasm.

Procaine is an occasional additive in illicit street drugs, such as cocaine. MDMA manufacturers also use procaine as an additive at ratios ranging from 1:1 up to 10% MDMA with 90% procaine, which can be life-threatening.

Adverse effects[edit]

Application of procaine leads to the depression of neuronal activity. The depression causes the nervous system to become hypersensitive, producing restlessness and shaking, leading to minor to severe convulsions.[citation needed] Studies on animals have shown the use of procaine led to the increase of dopamine and serotonin levels in the brain. Other issues may occur because of varying individual tolerance to procaine dosage. Nervousness and dizziness can arise from the excitation of the central nervous system, which may lead to respiratory failure if overdosed. Procaine may also induce weakening of the myocardium leading to cardiac arrest.

Procaine can also cause allergic reactions causing individuals to have problems with breathing, rashes, and swelling. Allergic reactions to procaine are usually not in response to procaine itself, but to its metabolite PABA. Allergic reactions are in fact quite rare, estimated to have an incidence of 1 per 500,000 injections. About one in 3000 white North Americans is homozygous (i.e. has two copies of the abnormal gene) for the most common atypical form of the enzyme pseudocholinesterase, and do not hydrolyze ester anesthetics such as procaine. This results in a prolonged period of high levels of the anesthetic in the blood and increased toxicity.

However, certain populations in the world such as the Vysya community in India commonly have a deficiency of this enzyme.

Synthesis[edit]

Procaine can be synthesized in two ways.

 
Procaine synthesis[14][15]
  1. The first consists of the direct reaction of the 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester with 2-diethylaminoethanol in the presence of sodium ethoxide.
  2. The second is by oxidizing 4-nitrotoluene to 4-nitrobenzoic acid, which is further reacted with thionyl chloride, the resulting acid chloride is then esterified with 2-diethylaminoethanol to give Nitrocaine. Finally, the nitro group is reduced by hydrogenation over Raney nickel catalyst

 

 

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